Wednesday, 29 April 2020

My art for Wed 29 April 2020 - "It is not a mater whether you did it or not..! It is the reality of the situation..!!

My art for Wed 29 April 2020 - (done with my laptop touch pad "mouse")

"It is not a mater whether you did it or not..! It is the reality of the situation..!!


Tuesday, 28 April 2020





good intel, and worth to be used by the US for a greater success recovery of Venezuela from being a terrible huge CUBA 2!




My Art for Tue28Apr2020 !


Saturday, 25 April 2020

David Gilmour - Comfortably Numb (Live At Pompeii)




It could take IRS 20 weeks to mail out all stimulus checks. How to track your $1,200 payment with new IRS tool

It could take IRS 20 weeks to mail out all stimulus checks. How to track your $1,200 payment with new IRS tool


U.S. budget deficit will expand to almost $4 trillion this year, CBO says

U.S. budget deficit will expand to almost $4 trillion this year, CBO says


Boeing ends deal with Embraer, Brazilian jet maker threatens legal action...

Associated Press

Boeing ends deal with Embraer, Brazilian jet maker threatens legal action


The planemakers planned to work on Embraer’s commercial aviation business

Boeing announced Saturday it terminated an agreement to join forces with Embraer, prompting an angry response from the Brazilian jet maker, which threatened to seek damages.
The pair had planned to work together on Embraer’s commercial aviation business and to develop new markets for its C-390 Millennium aircraft. They had been working toward an agreement for two years.
Boeing BA, -6.36% said it ended the agreement after Embraer ERJ, -13.00% did not meet conditions laid out by the deal, in which Boeing would have held majority ownership.
Over the past few months, the companies had “productive but ultimately unsuccessful negotiations” about the unsatisfied conditions, which was “deeply disappointing,” Marc Allen, Boeing’s president of Embraer partnership and group operations, said in a news release.
Embraer issued a statement saying it “believes strongly that Boeing has wrongfully terminated” the mutual transaction agreement and “that it has manufactured false claims as a pretext to seek to avoid its commitments to close the transaction and pay Embraer the US$4.2 billion purchase price.”

...sorry, not a good time for "experiments"...!


Long, hard road' Retail sales plunged by a record 9% in March, highlighted by a 50% nosedive at clothing and clothing accessories stores. American factories had their worst month since 1946.

The stock market is acting like a rapid recovery is a slam dunk. It's not

'Long, hard road'

Retail sales plunged by a record 9% in March, highlighted by a 50% nosedive at clothing and clothing accessories stores. American factories had their worst month since 1946.
That's on top of the 16.8 million people who have filed initial unemployment claims during the crisis, a number that is expected to jump higher still when jobless claims for the latest week are released Thursday.
Economists at JPMorgan Chase estimate GDP will collapse by 40% during the second quarter, driving up the unemployment rate to 20%.
Some Federal Reserve officials are warning the economy could stay weak.
"This could be a long, hard road that we have ahead of us until we get to either an effective therapy or a vaccine," Minneapolis Fed President Neel Kashkari told CBS on Sunday. "It's hard for me to see a V-shaped recovery under that scenario."
San Francisco Fed President Mary Daly expects "something more, like negative quarters of growth throughout 2020, and then a gradual return to positive growth in 2021," she told The Wall Street Journal on...

Friday, 24 April 2020

Ships in Horrible Storms

who designs the REAR of Ships and Military Destroyers!?  AESTHETICS does! NOT FUNCTIONALITY!




Second US Navy warship hit by major coronavirus outbreak By Ryan Browne and Michael Conte, CNN

Second US Navy warship hit by major coronavirus outbreak
By Ryan Browne and Michael Conte, CNN

Updated 12:06 PM ET, Fri April 24, 2020

Washington (CNN)A US Navy destroyer performing a counter narcotics mission has been hit by an outbreak of at least 18 coronavirus cases, a US Navy official tells CNN.

The USS Kidd is the second ship to be impacted by a major outbreak of the virus while at sea following the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt.
The Pentagon later confirmed that there has been an outbreak on the ship, with more than one sailor testing positive out of a crew of around 330. The ship is assigned to the recently enhanced counter narcotics mission in the Caribbean/Eastern Pacific aimed at countering illicit drug trafficking.
The first sailor that tested positive was medevac'd off the ship when he displayed symptoms, according to Pentagon spokesperson Jonathan Hoffman, and tested positive at a medical treatment facility in San Antonio.
"The Sailor is stable and receiving care at a medical treatment facility in San Antonio, Texas," the Navy said in a statement Friday.
There have since been other sailors on the ship who have tested positive and the Navy statement added that "testing continues, and we expect additional cases."
"They are preparing to return to port, where they will undertake efforts to clean the ship. They will remove a portion of the crew from the ship. And work to get everybody back to health and get the ship back to sea," said Hoffman.


Sunday, 19 April 2020

Business South African Airways Nears Collapse With Plan to Fire All Staff - Bloomberg - John Bowker and Loni Prinsloo, Bloomberg•April 19, 2020

South African Airways Nears Collapse With Plan to Fire All Staff
John Bowker and Loni Prinsloo ,Bloomberg•April 19, 2020

South African Airways plans to lay off its entire workforce after failing to persuade the government to provide more financial aid, a move that threatens to ground the 86-year-old carrier for good.
The state-owned airline has offered severance deals to all 4,700 staff from the end of this month after administrators concluded that a successful turnaround is now unlikely, according to a proposal to eight labor groups seen by Bloomberg News. The basic value of compensation will be one-week pay for each year of service and will depend on the successful disposal of assets such as real estate, according to the document.
No agreements have been concluded, the Department of Public Enterprises said in a statement. “There are discussions with the unions on alternatives to the current South African Airways business model, success of the business rescue process, and the best possible outcome for the airlines employees.”
SAA has relied on bailouts and state-guaranteed debt agreements for years, having last made a profit in 2011, and was put into a form of bankruptcy protection in December. Public Enterprises Minister Pravin Gordhan said earlier this week that the cost of staving off the Covid-19 pandemic meant no more cash could be extended, while Finance Minister Tito Mboweni said the carrier’s closure could help shore up state finances.
The coronavirus may prove the final nail in the coffin for SAA, which was reducing routes and considering job cuts even before the outbreak forced airlines around the world to ground airplanes. The industry could lose $314 billion in ticket sales this year, according to the International Air Transport Association, as lockdowns and travel bans take an increasingly heavy toll on the global economy.

In nod to normalcy, Pence celebrates Air Force Academy grads via @YahooNews

In nod to normalcy, Pence celebrates Air Force Academy grads via @YahooNews

AIR FORCE ACADEMY, Colo. (AP) — In a symbolic nod to normalcy, Vice President Mike Pence delivered a commencement address to the U.S. Air Force Academy's graduating class on Saturday, telling the cadets that by setting off on their mission to defend the nation they “inspire confidence that we will prevail against the invisible enemy in our time as well.”
Pence's trip, only his second outside Washington in the last six weeks, was aimed at showing that the country is on course to gradually reopening after weeks of the coronavirus shutdown.
He spoke at a scaled-down ceremony at the academy outside Colorado Springs, where hundreds of graduating cadets in blue and white dress uniforms sat eight feet apart, taking up an area nearly as large as a football field.
“I know we gather at a time of great challenge in the life of our nation,” Pence said as he began his remarks. “And while we don’t quite look like the usual graduation at the Air Force Academy, let me tell you, this is an awesome sight. And I wouldn’t be anywhere else but with the 62nd class of the Air Force Academy, the class of 2020.”
The event usually attracts a big crowd to Falcon Stadium, which has a maximum capacity of more than 46,000. President Donald Trump spoke last year. But this year, the pandemic forced the academy to close the ceremony to visitors, including friends and family of the nearly 1,000 graduates.
Still, the ceremony featured its signature dramatic flyover by the Air Force Thunderbirds, which thundered overhead as the graduates threw their hats into the air and burst into cheers. But instead of being able to embrace their fellow graduates, the cadets remained several feet apart and then proceeded to tie on white face masks.


Venezuela slams US over 'vulgar' central bank funds seizure via @YahooNews

Venezuela slams US over 'vulgar' central bank funds seizure via @YahooNews

Caracas (AFP) - Venezuela on Friday hit out at the United States over the seizure of $342 million that its central bank had held in an account at Citibank.
In a Twitter post, Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza blasted the "vulgar dispossession" of the money "ordered" by the US -- and pointed to "complicity" by the opposition-controlled National Assembly.
The US-based assets of Venezuela's central bank are among those that have been frozen under tough sanctions put in place by the government of President Donald Trump.
This week, Venezuela's legislature -- led by US-backed Juan Guaido -- authorized the transfer of the funds from a central bank account with Citibank to its account at the New York branch of the US Federal Reserve.
Neither the National Assembly nor the central bank divulged the amount transferred, but opposition lawmaker Angel Alvarado told AFP it amounted to $342 million.
Alvarado said the move aimed to "further protect these assets," but the central bank called it illegal.

Friday, 17 April 2020


martes, 14 de abril de 2020






En 1975 mucho del gran debate petrolero pre-nacionalización se centró en los niveles de participación que el Estado permitiría al sector privado. La

decisión sobre la “nacionalización” (estatización) ya había sido tomada. En las postrimerías del gran debate político sobre esta decisión surgió la propuesta

por parte del gobierno de Carlos Andrés Pérez de un Artículo Quinto de la ley a ser promulgada, según el cual el estado podría, cuando así le conviniere y

dependiendo de la aprobación del poder legislativo, suscribir contratos de asociación con el sector privado. Decía así, textualmente: “Artículo 5: El Estado

ejercerá las actividades señaladas en el artículo 1o de la presente Ley directamente por el Ejecutivo Nacional o por medio de entes de su propiedad,

pudiendo celebrar los convenios operativos necesarios para la mejor realización de sus funciones, sin que en ningún caso estas gestiones afecten la

esencia misma de las actividades atribuidas. En casos especiales y cuando así convenga al interés público el Ejecutivo Nacional o los referidos entes

podrán , en el ejercicio de cualquiera de las señaladas actividades, celebrar convenios de asociación con entes privados con una participación tal que

garantice el control por parte del Estado y con una duración determinada. Para la celebración de tales convenios se requerirá la previa autorización de las

Cámaras en sesión conjunta, dentro de las condiciones que fijen, una vez que hayan sido debidamente informadoras por el Ejecutivo Nacional de todas

las circunstancias pertinentes”.

Esta propuesta produjo una explosión de indignación patriótica y patriotera en el sector político venezolano, tanto de izquierda como de derecha. En ese

momento explotaron las fibras nacionalistas y mucho del mundo político venezolano se rebeló en contra de tal propuesta. Entreguista, anti-venezolana,

colonizada, servil, fueron algunos de los términos utilizados para definirla. Se habló que, de aprobarse tal artículo, ello llevaría a una nacionalización

Sin embargo, el gobierno tenía los votos para aprobarla y así fue. Los gerentes y técnicos de la industria petrolera apoyaron este artículo y por ello fueron

definidos como “vendidos al imperialismo” y como “mentes colonizadas”, frase utilizada por Jaime Lusinchi.
Un libro monumental de Allan Brewer Carías, “Crónica de una Destrucción”,  con aportes de varios destacados ejecutivos  petroleros venezolanos ilustra

este proceso de involución legal y administrativa que llevó a la industria petrolera venezolana al estado de ruina en el cual se encuentra hoy. Este libro

puede ser descargado aquí: CRONICA_DE_UNA_DESTRUCCION._Concesion_Na

La aplicación de este artículo quinto nunca fue necesaria hasta que en 1995 se dio inicio a la APERTURA PETROLERA, en base a la cual se celebraron

múltiples contratos con empresas privadas nacionales e internacionales para producir en campos de pequeño tamaño o en los nuevos desarrollos de la

faja del Orinoco. En ese momento aparecieron de nuevo patriotas y  patrioteros indignados, impugnando ante la Corte Suprema de Justicia su anulación.

Ali Rodríguez Araque, el terrorista que había dinamitado oleoductos de la industria en los años 60, fue el autor de uno de esos documentos de

impugnación. Este y otros documentos fueron acompañados por las firmas solidarias de un grupo de férrea ideología comunista/socialista y todos fueron

rechazados por los tribunales.
La apertura petrolera fue un éxito del cual existen numerosas evidencias. Las empresas privadas invirtieron unos $23.000 millones entre 1994 y 2003, se

llevó a cabo un significativo aumento de la producción y de las reservas probadas de petróleo liviano y mediano y se construyeron cuatro plantas

mejoradoras de crudo pesado en la faja del Orinoco, las únicas que existen hasta hoy.

Con la llegada de Hugo Chávez al poder se instaló una Asamblea Constituyente, ilegalmente convocada,  a la cual le fue encargada la redacción de una

nueva constitución. Esta nueva constitución, objeto de toda clase de alteraciones a espaldas de los constituyentes y del pueblo, estableció  la propiedad

exclusiva del Estado sobre las acciones de Petróleos de Venezuela S.A., “o del ente creado para el manejo de la industria petrolera,” pero no lo hizo

sobre  la propiedad de las acciones “de las filiales, asociaciones estratégicas, empresas y cualquier otra que se haya constituido o se constituya como

consecuencia del desarrollo de negocios de Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A.,”. Debido a esta omisión, nos dice Brewer Carías “fue [este] propio texto

constitucional el que eliminó el principio de la reserva que estaba en la Ley de Nacionalización de 1975, al permitir que las acciones de todas las empresas

del Estado operadoras de la industria petrolera nacionalizada pudieran ser vendidas al sector privado. Hubiera sido preferible – añade Brewer Carías - que

nada se hubiera regulado sobre el tema de la propiedad de las acciones de PDVSA en la Constitución, a que se constitucionalizara expresamente la

posibilidad de la venta de las acciones de las filiales de PDVSA. En todo caso, las antes analizadas normas constitucionales puede decirse que fueron las

que constituyeron el fundamento del proceso de desnacionalización petrolera que se comenzó a producir en el país a comienzos de siglo, al regularse

ampliamente conforme al marco constitucional, la participación de empresas privadas en las actividades industriales y comerciales”.

La ignorancia y la desviación ideológica del chavismo condujo al desastre petrolero. Nos recuerda Brewer Carías: “A partir del 18 de abril de 2006,

mediante una ley de la Asamblea Nacional se puso fin y se extinguieron los Convenios Operativos que existían, es decir, dándose por terminados en

forma unilateral y anticipada [los] contratos administrativos que habían sido válidamente suscritos. … En estos casos, la responsabilidad del Estado por los

daños causados por la terminación unilateral y anticipada de los contratos y el derecho de los cocontratantes a ser indemnizados era incuestionable”.
Se anularon los convenios operativos suscritos con empresas privadas, los cuales habían llevado al desarrollo de los recursos de la faja del Orinoco y a la

construcción de las plantas mejoradoras, para remplazarlos con el concepto de empresas mixtas en las cuales la participación del estado debía ser de 60%

o mayor. Decía la nueva ley: “ningún nuevo contrato podrá otorgar participación en las actividades de exploración, explotación, almacenamiento y

transporte inicial de hidrocarburos líquidos, o en los beneficios derivados de la producción de dichos hidrocarburos, a persona alguna de naturaleza

privada, natural o jurídica, salvo como accionista minoritario en una empresa mixta, constituida de conformidad con la Ley Orgánica de Hidrocarburos en

la cual el Estado asegure el control accionario y operacional de la empresa” (Art. 3).
Pero ¿que sucedía en paralelo? Sucedía que el estado venezolano, envuelto en una orgía populista de gastos dispendiosos, de subsidios electoreros y en

una espiral ascendiente de corrupción no podía ni quería aportar el dinero que debía aportar según la nueva ley que ellos mismos impusieron. Estipularon

lo siguiente, según nos dice Brewer Carías:  “:[El Estado] va a asumir directamente, o mediante empresas de su exclusiva propiedad, el control de las

actividades realizadas por las asociaciones que operan en la Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco, incluyendo mejoradores y las asignaciones de explotación a

riesgo y ganancias compartidas, para regularizar y ajustar sus actividades dentro del marco legal que rige a la industria petrolera nacional, a través de la

figura de empresas mixtas o de empresas de la exclusiva propiedad del Estado.  La nueva ley – en su artículo 2 -  atribuyó al Ministerio del Poder Popular

para la Energía y Petróleo la potestad de determinar unilateralmente, en cada caso, “la valoración de la Empresa Mixta, la participación accionaria de la

filial de Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. designada a efecto, y los ajustes económicos y financieros que fueren procedentes”
Debido a estos términos algunos de los socios privados consideraron que se llevaba a cabo una verdadera confiscación por lo cual acudieron arbitraje

ante la Cámara de Comercio Internacional de Nueva York, como estaba previsto en los contratos, entre otros:    ICC Arbitration Case No. 15416/Jrf/Ca (Dec.

2011), Mobil Cerro Negro Ltd. V. Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.; 30 y, ICC Arbitration Case 20549/ASM/JPA (C-20550/ASM), Phillips Petroleum Company

Venezuela Limited Conocophillips Petrozuata B.V. v. Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A., Corpoguanipa, S.A., Pdvsa Petróleo, S.A. (24 April 2018). Los resultados

arbitrales  fueron catastróficos para PDVSA y aceleraron el colapso de la industria petrolera. Brewer Carías cita una información del diario EL PAÍS, de

Madrid, del 11 de mayo de 2018, en la cual se resume la grave situación en la cual se encontraba la empresa por las demandas intentadas por las empresas

Phillips Petroleum Company: “Conoco Phillips pone a Venezuela contra la pared Un tribunal internacional obliga a PDVSA a pagar 2.000 millones de

dólares por perjuicios y contempla embargos a activos y crudo venezolano”.
Al desastre financiero resultante de las demandas en contra de PDVSA se agregó el hecho de que las nuevas empresas mixtas resultantes de la migración

de las asociaciones no nacionalizaban  sino que desnacionalizaban. El artículo 8 de la nueva ley estipulaban que el Ejecutivo Nacional, mediante Decreto,

debía transferir a las Empresas Mixtas resultantes del proceso de migración “el derecho al ejercicio de sus actividades primarias, pudiendo igualmente

adjudicarles la propiedad u otros derechos sobre bienes muebles o inmuebles del dominio privado de la República que sean requeridos para el ejercicio

eficiente de tales actividades.”  Al permitir a las socias extranjeras de las nuevas empresas mixtas hasta el 40% accionario se le reconocía la propiedad de

ese porcentaje de los activos de la empresa, pudiendo, además, obtener propiedades o derechos adicionales, según el artículo 8 citado. De manera que

este acto del chavismo no solo dejó pálido al artículo quinto de 1975 que los patrioteros tanto adversaron sino que representaba un acto paradójico,

mediante el cual – al pretender acentuar la naturaleza estatal del negocio – lo desnacionalizaban.

Tradicionalmente la empresa PDVSA había descansado en empresas nacionales y extranjeras de servicios para llevar a cabo muchas actividades conexas,

no medulares, tales como lois servicios de lanchas para el transporte de empleados en el lago de Maracaibo, labor de buzos, suministro de agua

industrial, remolcadores, grúas, mantenimiento de buques y equipos diversos, toda una estructura industrial y de servicios periférica a la misión medular

de PDVSA. En mayo de 2009 la pandilla de Ramírez Carreño llevó a cabo un acto de piratería sin precedentes en la industria petrolera venezolana, al

“nacionalizar” (tomar el control por parte del gobierno chavista) de estas actividades. La llamada Ley   Orgánica que reserva al Estado bienes y servicios

conexos a las actividades primarias de Hidrocarburos” reservó al Estado “los bienes y servicios, conexos a la realización de las actividades primarias

previstas en la Ley Orgánica de Hidrocarburos” (Art. 1).
Según Brewer Carías esta ley tuvo efectos desastrosos: “en las explotaciones del Lago de Maracaibo, donde tuvieron un gran impacto por el

desmantelamiento y abandono total de una de las principales actividades que antes se desarrollaban en el mismo, y le habían dado por décadas vida

económica durante tantos años. Esos efectos desastrosos fueron incluso reconocidos siete años después por el Ministro del Petróleo, Eulogio Del Pino,

quien a su vez en ese momento era también el Presidente de PDVSA, en una exposición pública que hizo ante la a la XXXVIII Asamblea General Ordinaria

de la Cámara Petrolera de Venezuela (CPV) en julio de 2016, en la cual admitió que “hubo un error en las estatizaciones” que se hicieron en 2009,

refiriéndose en particular a las empresas de servicios de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo; agregando que: “debemos ir a nuevo modelo con

mayoría del sector privado y eso pasa por un reconocimiento de errores. Creo que lo que se hizo en el Lago de Maracaibo tuvo muchos errores, debemos

reconocerlo y hemos ido a un esquema en el cual a todos aquellos empresarios, que aún quieran continuar, vamos a devolverle sus actividades”. Pero ese

“mea culpa” de Eulogio Del Pino llegó demasiado tarde ya que las empresas capturadas por los bucaneros chavistas de Ramírez Carreño habían quebrado

o desaparecido, porque no hubo pago justo y oportuno por estas confiscaciones.
De nuevo, esta arbitrariedad se llevó a cabo en nombre de una cacareada “nacionalización” acto que robó a empresarios nacionales de su patrimonio, un

manotazo de piratería estatista profundamente desnacionalizador.

¿Patriotismo? ¿Soberanía? Palabras huecas e hipócritas en boca de quienes se han burlado del país mientras se enriquecían de manera obscena. Les

espera la cárcel.

Publicado por Gustavo Coronel en 5:58
3 comentarios:
Anónimo dijo...
El debacle de la IPN y Pdvsa ha sido producto de ése desastroso nacionalismo mal entendido y del apetito de los políticos mediocres de meterle la mano

al dinero que produce el petróleo y gas., Pero no con trabajo responsable y honesto sino con trampas y trucos mal habidos, porque trabajar y lograr ser

exitoso en ése negocio requiere capacidad, profesionalismo y ética. Eso no lo logran la cantidad de majunches y ladrones que tomaron a Pdvsa por asalto

liderados por Alí Rodriguez y Rafael Ramirez.

14 de abril de 2020, 6:42
Anónimo dijo...
Es increíble que Brewer Carías no haya convocado en ese libro a Gustavo Coronel, el único miembro de la primera junta directiva de PDVSA con obra

escrita sobre el tema.

De tener algo de suerte, entiéndase que Maduro salga este año 2020, lo que quede, casi nada, tendrá que pasar por el modelo que criticaban los

politiqueros en 1995. De todas todas.

Una cosa que pocos recuerdan es que Mommer es buscado por la justicia chavista. No debería quedar impune en todo esto porque es el ideólogo del

desastre petrolero junto a la escoria que llaman Rafael Ramírez. Ah, y a Giordani, que nadie lo menciona pero es el que quería que todos los venezolanos

fuéramos pobres.

Alí Rodríguez escapó liso. Ojalá en el infierno le hayan dado la bienvenida que merece.

14 de abril de 2020, 23:20
Anónimo dijo...
Digamos y hablemos de la repetición del experimento funcional político y de
gobiernos en Centro y Sur América!

[1] España y luego Simón Bolívar
[2] Centro y Sur América pasan posteriormente por procesos comunismo/socialismo.
[3] El Cubanazo y los Castro nacen.
[4] Dictaduras nombradas.
En todo esto USA va moldeandose en su presencia estratégicas y acciones primeras.
La mayoría de los países, menos Cuba, funcionan bajo sus propios gobiernos.
Pensemos quién está en control y ganando y volviéndose únicos cómo Potencia Mundial?
Y quién cae: El Muro de Berlín y la Unión Soviética. Quién es usado en grandes comercios
y tecnologías: China, Israel, etc. Armas Bélicas de paises no alineados, por Rusia.

[5] Ocurre finalmente el deterrioro necesario inicial de un Imperio pequeño como
Venezuela. La presencia USA en Venezuela sufre deterioro por falso nacionalismo
de los venezolanos y falso orgullo!

Sin embargo no es así de la mayoría educada poblacional no política, que ve y estudia
lo que está occurriendo! Pero no son reales actores! Muchos entienden el mal de haber preferido a actores más malignos que los malo de USA en la Industria Petrolera y su resguardo con presencia militar en Aeropuertos de Venezuela.

[6] Empieza el Chavismo y luego el Madurismo.

Llegamos al día de hoy, en esta historía, donde el jugador/dios más grande se vuelve
más desarrollado tecnológicmente y desarrollo en Sciencia Cognitiva e Intelligencia
artificial, y las mega computadoras y los cloud. Y supremacia Militar.

Y CUÁL ES EL ESCENARIO AMERICANO? Russia y China no pudieron, ni fueron dejados
lograr control de alguna mayoría significativa en Sur América y Centro America. Russia está en retirada de Venezuela por el embargo lento a Maduro.

Y pero, si es peor la formación de una Cuba 2, de mucha influencia negativa aún regional, en Narco
y Terrorismo que se están empobreciéndo!

Así el resultado de 20 años para Latinoamerica. Es un país destruido por esta banda de
criminales Madurismo! Esta vez USA va a jugar más precencialmente en contra de
Venezuela. No hay otra forma de tomar mejor pié en su Continente. Se demostró
que los Venzolanos buenos emigraron y muy pocos quedaron. Que eran débiles
politicamente. Y quizás el país siga siendo débil políticamente después de Maduro y

Pero es obvio que USA deja correr este experimento a parte de ellos, Canadá y México.
Ellos son los que están muy por encima, aunque no lo aparenten y aún lo aparten. Su
estrcutura de Comando Mundial Militar desde George H. W. Bush Sr. fue el movimiento
de completar el Imperio Mundo USA! Presencia Estratégica enorme Mundialmente y en
Europa. Y su obvio control y presencia Militar y bases en Centro y Sur América. Y el logro
obtenido por ellos al usar esta  Estrategia Militar Mundial. No son nuestros Polizontes,
sinó son algo más! Son los únicos con más benignidad social y ayuda Mundial. No son
perfectos en su País localmente, pero tienen muchos más servicios sociales que otras
Potencias burdas Mundiales. Merecen nuestro respeto! Lo peor sin ellos (USA) no lo debe
querer nadie.

EN ESTA VIDA en Política y otras muchas cosas, "EL TIEMPO LO DICE TODO", y "no
actuar a tiempo, también! Parece ser que será así por muchos siglos, que los malos
no ganan siempre. Los Dioses nos libren de otra WWII (Nazis y Monarquía Japón). 

Es triste que saliera a relusirse lo peor de Venezuela, sin que todos lo fuesen o sean!

17 de abril de 2020, 21:52


Thursday, 16 April 2020

Зара и Андреа Бочелли — Time to say goodbye (@Премия МУЗ-ТВ 2017)







Andrea Bocelli, Helene Fischer - When I Fall In Love - Live / 2012







Andrea Bocelli, Laura Pausini - Dare To Live (HD) ft. Laura Pausini






no words for such combination song and idiom language accent! of their own supreme kind!







Andrea Bocelli and Katharine Mcphee - The prayer (Live 2008) HD

...surrey central singing by Bochelli! i did not believe it was a homage or actual quality respect for him!







Inauguration of Donald Trump From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -

Inauguration of Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Presidential Inauguration of
Donald Trump
With right hand raised, Donald Trump looks at John Roberts with his back to the camera, as Melania Trump and others watch.
DateJanuary 20, 2017; 3 years ago
Time11:41 a.m. EST
LocationUnited States Capitol,
Washington, D.C.
Organized byJoint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies
ParticipantsDonald John Trump
45th President of the United States
— Assuming office

John Glover Roberts Jr.
Chief Justice of the United States
— Administering oath

Michael Richard Pence
48th Vice President of the United States
— Assuming office

Clarence Thomas
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
— Administering oath
WebsiteThe 58th Presidential Inauguration at the Wayback Machine (archived January 1, 2017)
Trump Inaugural Logo.svg

The inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States marked commencement of the term of Donald Trump as President and Mike Pence as Vice President.[1] An estimated 300,000 to 600,000[2][3] people attended the public ceremony held on Friday, January 20, 2017 at the West Front of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.
The event was the 58th presidential inauguration.[4] Held in Washington, D.C., from January 17 to 21, 2017, inaugural events included concerts, the swearing-in ceremony, a Congressional luncheonparadeinaugural balls, and the interfaith inaugural prayer service.
Administered by Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts, the presidential oath was taken by Trump as his first task after becoming president at noon, in keeping with Article Two, Section 1, Clause 8 and the 20th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, with the vice presidential oath taken by Pence and administered by Associate Justice Clarence Thomas immediately preceding it.[5] Trump was sworn in with his left hand on a pair of Bibles, his personal copy and the Lincoln Bible.[6][7] The inauguration was accompanied by protests worldwide.[8]
In March 2019, it was reported multiple shell companies tied to foreigners gave money to the inauguration.[9]



The inauguration marked the formal culmination of the presidential transition of Donald Trump that began when he won the U.S. presidential election on November 9, 2016, and became the President-elect.[10] Trump and his running mate, Mike Pence, were formally elected by the Electoral College on December 19, 2016.[11][12] The win was certified by an electoral vote tally by a joint session of Congress on January 6, 2017.[13]
Upon his inauguration, Trump became the first person to become president without any prior political or military experience.[14] He is also the oldest person to assume the presidency, as well as the wealthiest.[14] His wife, Melania, is the second first lady to be born outside the U.S. (after Louisa Adams) and first not to be born in an English-speaking country, the first naturalized citizen to become the first lady, and the first born in the 1970s.[15][16]


The inauguration was planned primarily by two committees: the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the 2017 Presidential Inaugural Committee. The election was scheduled for November 8, 2016, but the congressional committee began construction of the inaugural platform on September 21.[17]
A number of artists who were approached to perform refused, including Jennifer Holliday, who was originally intended to perform, but withdrew herself from the program after further consideration.[18][19]

Joint Congressional Committee[edit]

The swearing-in ceremony and the inaugural luncheon for President-elect Trump and Vice President-elect Pence were planned by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, a committee composed of United States senator Roy Blunt of Missouri, the committee chair, and Senate party leaders Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Chuck Schumer of New York, and House Speaker Paul Ryan of Wisconsin and House party leaders Kevin McCarthy of California and Nancy Pelosi of California.[20] The committee was overseen by the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration.
The Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies chose the inaugural theme "Uniquely American" to highlight the inaugural ceremony as "a uniquely American expression of our Constitutional system" and stress the peaceful transition of power.[21]
The Inauguration Committee released the full schedule of the January 20 inaugural events on December 21, 2016.[22] Military support to the 58th inauguration was coordinated by Joint Task Force National Capital Region, providing musical military unitsmarching bandscolor guards, ushers, firing details, and salute batteries.[23]

Presidential Inaugural Committee[edit]

Rick Gates was Deputy Chairman and did much of the actual work.[24]
The 2017 Presidential Inaugural Committee[25] organized several other inauguration-related events at the direction of the president‑elect and vice president–elect of the United States, such as the concerts, parade, balls and prayer service. The chairman of the committee was Thomas J. Barrack Jr., a real estate investor and longtime Trump friend and ally, and the founder of Colony Capital. The co-chairs of the committee were Lewis M. Eisenberg and Roy Bailey.[26] Committee members included casino magnates Sheldon Adelson and Miriam AdelsonSteve Wynn and Phil Ruffin, oil entrepreneur Harold Hamm, businesswoman Diane Hendricks, coal businessman Joe Craft, Gail Icahn, wife of Carl Icahn, Dallasites Ray Washburne, Gentry Beach, Roy Bailey, and Woody Johnson, owner of the New York Jets.[27]
The inaugural committee raised an unprecedented $107 million "from wealthy donors who gave $1 million or more."[28] This was twice the amount raised by any previous inauguration committee.[29] Observers agree that the actual inauguration expenses would have been a fraction of that amount, and the advocacy group Public Citizen has been seeking to know what happened to the remaining funds.[29] Committee officials said they were evaluating charities to give the remaining funds to.[30] In September 2017, the committee said it had given $3 million to three separate hurricane rescue organizations.[31] An unspecified amount had also been used for redecorating the White House and Vice President Mike Pence's Washington residence.[29] Thomas Barrack, the committee chair, said that further information about charitable donations would be released in November 2017, but no such announcement was made.[29] The inauguration committee reported having $2.8 million in the bank as of October 2017.[32]
According to a tax filing released on February 15, 2018, the committee donated $5 million to charity in 2017 — namely, the previously announced donations to hurricane relief, the White House Historical Association, and the Vice President's Residence Foundation. The majority of the committee's outlay — $57 million — went to four event-planning companies.[32] The largest amount, $26 million, went to a California firm called WIS Media Partners, which was created in December 2016 by a close friend and advisor to Melania Trump, named Stephanie Winston Wolkoff,[32] whose staff stayed at the Trump International Hotel during the planning of the inauguration.[33] Twenty-four million dollars went to an independent organization created by television producer Mark Burnett, "Inaugural Productions", for the staging of several events.[34] The committee reported nearly $15 million in administrative expenses, including $9.4 million for travel and $4.6 million for salaries and benefits for 208 employees.[32] The committee spent more than $1.5 million at the Trump International Hotel.[33] Ivanka Trump helped negotiate a rate of $175,000 per day for the committee's use of the hotel's Presidential Ballroom and meeting rooms after Gates and Wolkoff complained that Trump International Hotel managing director Mickael Damelincourt attempted to charge them above-market rates.[35]

Pre-inaugural events[edit]

Diplomat summit: Chairman's Global Dinner[edit]

Then-President-elect Trump and his wife, Melania, arriving at Joint Base Andrews in Washington, D.C. for the inauguration.
On Tuesday, January 17, then-President-elect Trump arrived in Washington, D.C., to attend what was titled the "Chairman's Global Dinner," a high-profile dinner that was intended to serve as an introduction between foreign diplomats and the incoming Trump administration officials and appointees.[36] The dinner was black tie and invitation-only, and was described by The Wall Street Journal as the most high-profile event preceding the inauguration,[37] with both Trump and Vice President-elect Mike Pence addressing the gathering.[36] The event was held at the Andrew W. Mellon Auditorium.[36]
Rex Tillerson, Trump's choice to succeed John Kerry as secretary of state, was in attendance, as well as former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani and National Security Advisor-designate Michael T. Flynn, and Israeli ambassador Ron Dermer, according to reporters in attendance at the event.[36] More than 200 foreign diplomats attended the event out of 500 total guests.[36] During his speech to the group, Trump praised his choices thus far for Cabinet positions as well as his choice of Pence as his vice president.[38] According to The Boston Globe and the Associated Press, the menu included mustard black cod and filet mignon as entrees, and baked Alaska for dessert.[38]

Voices of the People concert[edit]

On the morning and afternoon of January 19, a day-long "Voices of the People" public concert was held at the Lincoln Memorial. The concert featured The King's Academy (West Palm Beach, Florida) Honor Choir, the Republican Hindu Coalition, the Montgomery Area High School Marching Band, Marlana Van Hoose, the Maury NJROTC Color Guard, the Pride of Madawaska, Webelos Troop 177, the Northern Middle School Honors Choir, the American Tap Company, the Everett High School Viking Marching Band, the TwirlTasTix Baton Twirling group, and three bagpipe groups.[39]

Arlington National Cemetery wreath laying ceremony[edit]

Donald Trump and Mike Pence at the wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
After returning home to New York City, Trump returned to Washington, D.C., on Thursday, January 19, arriving at Joint Base Andrews on a plane flown by the U.S. Air Force.[40][41]
Trump and Vice President-elect Pence attended a luncheon at Trump's hotel at the Old Post Office Pavilion,[42] and afterwards, the official wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery, accompanied by his wife and family.[43] Trump and Pence were escorted by Major General Bradley Becker at the ceremony.[42] The Arlington National Cemetery is the final resting place of more than 400,000, mostly members of the armed forces, Medal of Honor recipients, and high ranking political officials.[44]

Make America Great Again Welcome Celebration concert[edit]

On the evening of January 19, Trump hosted the "Make America Great Again! Welcome Celebration," a concert for his supporters that were attending his inauguration the following day. The concert, held on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, featured performances by Lee Greenwood (who performed "God Bless the USA"), Toby Keith3 Doors DownDJ Ravidrums,[45] The Piano Guys,[46] and The Frontmen of Country (Tim RushlowLarry Stewart, and Richie McDonald).[47] Trump addressed his supporters at the end of the festivities, saying that the "forgotten man and the forgotten woman will not be forgotten anymore".[45] Actor Jon Voight also spoke at the event, stating, "We have been witness to a barrage of propaganda that left us all breathless with anticipation, not knowing if God could reverse all the negative lies against Mr. Trump, whose only desire was to make America great again."[45] The concert concluded with a fireworks celebration, accompanied by a U.S. military choir and band performing the Battle Hymn of the Republic.[45]

Church service and White House reception[edit]

U.S. Capitol at dawn, mostly darkened but with the dome floodlit from without
Preparations at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. as the sun begins to rise on the morning of the inauguration
On the morning of the inauguration, on January 20, after staying the night at the Blair House, the traditional house used by the incoming President-elect due to its proximity to the White House,[48] Trump and his wife, Melania, and Mike Pence and his wife, Karen, attended a church service at St. John's Episcopal Church.[49] The tradition dates back to James Madison, with every President since then attending the church service the morning of their inauguration.[50] The service was led by Robert Jeffress, a Southern Baptist minister who campaigned for Trump during the election.[49]
After the church service, Trump and his wife went to the White House to meet with President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama. The Obamas greeted the Trumps, and Melania presented the couple with a gift.[51] They then posed for photos in front of the White House press corps.[51] The presentation of a gift was a tradition started by Michelle Obama when she presented George W. Bush and Laura Bush with a gift on the day of her husband's inauguration in 2009.[52] Afterward, they held a tea reception inside the White House, along with Vice President Joe Biden and his wife, Jill Biden, and Mike Pence and his wife, Karen Pence.[51] As per tradition, following the meeting between the president and the president-elect, they shared the presidential motorcade limousine, and made their way to the Capitol for the inaugural ceremony.[51]

Inaugural events[edit]


President Trump delivering his inauguration speech following his swearing-in ceremony
File:President Trump's Inaugural Address.webm
President Trump delivering his inaugural address
Roy Blunt commenced the inauguration ceremony at 11:41 a.m. with welcoming remarks about the nation's "commonplace and miraculous" tradition of a peaceful transition of power. Three religious figures delivered invocations, followed by the Missouri State University chorale performing an original work, "Now We Belong". After short remarks, Chuck Schumer ended his speech by asking everyone to stand for the swearing-in ceremony.[53][54][55][56]
Outgoing President Barack Obama, outgoing Vice President Joe Biden, former presidents Jimmy CarterBill Clinton, and George W. Bush, and former vice presidents Dan Quayle and Dick Cheney, along with their respective wives, attended the inauguration,[57] including Hillary Clinton, who had been Trump's main opponent in the general election (Clinton was attending as a former first lady, not as the losing candidate[58]). Former president George H. W. Bush and former first lady Barbara Bush did not attend the inauguration due to their health reasons.[59]
At 11:54 a.m., Associate Justice Clarence Thomas swore in Mike Pence as the 48th vice president of the United States, with Pence's hand on his personal Bible as well as the Bible of Ronald Reagan, the politician who inspired Pence to join the Republican Party. A performance of "America the Beautiful" by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir followed. At noon, Trump became the 45th president of the United States, taking the oath of office with Chief Justice John Roberts. Trump was also sworn in using two Bibles, a Bible his mother gifted him and the historic Lincoln Bible. After the swearing-in, the Marine Band performed "Hail to the Chief" and Trump received the traditional 21-gun salute in his honor.[60][61][62][63]

Inaugural address[edit]

President Trump then delivered his 16-minute inaugural address of 1,433 words.[64] The speech was the shortest inaugural address since Jimmy Carter's in 1977.[65]
In late December 2016, Trump told visitors that he was writing the first draft of his inaugural address, citing previous inauguration speeches by John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan as inspirations.[66] Trump "insisted publicly that he wrote his own speech,"[67] although The Wall Street Journal and others reported that it had been written by Trump senior aides Stephen Miller and Steven Bannon.[67][68][69][70]
The speech struck a tone that was both nationalist and populist,[65][68] with suggestions of absolutism[71] and distrust of democracy.[72] The Los Angeles Times described the address as a "a truncated version of Trump's campaign rally addresses, absent specific policy and big on a sense of anger at what he defined as a ruling class that has raided America for its own benefit."[65] Historians and speechwriters termed the inaugural address as "one of the most ominous" in U.S. history,[68] striking an unusually dark and bleak note.[73][74][75][76][77] Former president George W. Bush reportedly referred to the speech as "some weird shit" after the ceremony concluded.[78][79]
Trump pledged to end what he referred to as "American carnage,"[80][81][82] depicting the United States in a dystopian light—as a "land of abandoned factories, economic angst, rising crime"—while pledging "a new era in American politics."[73][83]
Barack Obama with Donald Trump on Inauguration Day. Joe Biden stands behind Trump.
Fact-checking organizations, such as FactCheck.orgPolitiFact, and The Washington Post's Fact Checker claimed that Trump's portrayal of the United States in decline "did not always match reality."[84][85][86] The fact-checking organizations noted, among other things, that the U.S. violent crime rate was far below its 1991 peak; that the U.S. economy had gained jobs for 75 consecutive months and that unemployment was significantly below its historical average; and participation in U.S. welfare programs had declined.[84][85][86]
In the speech, Trump repeated his campaign-trail "America First" slogan in reference to economic[81][87] and foreign policy issues.[88] Trump's use of the phrase was controversial because of the slogan's association with U.S. isolationists who had opposed the American entry in World War II.[75][81] Trump's decision "not to make a strong case for the role of American power in shaping the outside world was a departure from the inaugural addresses of recent Republican presidents from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush," and represented "a sharp break with the internationalist vision of nearly every U.S. president of the past 100 years that troubled veteran foreign policy experts."[89] Nevertheless, Trump's themes on foreign policy appealed "to many Americans as well as to critics of Washington's bipartisan foreign policy establishment."[89]


Three religious leaders delivered benedictions following Trump's speech, bringing the total number of prayers during the ceremony to six, a record number. Reverend Franklin Graham; Cardinal Timothy M. DolanArchbishop of New York; Reverend Dr. Samuel Rodriguez; Pastor Paula White; Rabbi Marvin Hier; and Bishop Wayne T. Jackson gave the benedictions.[54][90] Jackie Evancho concluded the ceremony with a performance of the U.S. national anthem.[91]

Post-ceremony events[edit]

After the inaugural ceremony, President Trump, First Lady Melania Trump, Vice President Mike Pence and Second Lady Karen Pence escorted former president Barack Obama and former first lady Michelle Obama to a departure ceremony on the east side of the U.S. Capitol. The Trumps exchanged remarks and bid farewell to the Obamas at the base of the helicopter that would transport them to Joint Base Andrews, and then returned to the steps of the Capitol building where they waved as the Obama's helicopter took off. Meanwhile, the Bidens took a limousine to Union Station where they boarded a train for Dover, Delaware. Before the luncheon and in keeping with tradition, President Trump signed his first presidential orders in the President's Room at the Capitol,[92] and then signed the guest book for the luncheon.
President and First Lady Trump bidding farewell to former President and First Lady Obama on the East Front of the U.S. Capitol
Next, Trump signed orders to officially present the nominations for his Cabinet and several sub‑Cabinet officials to the Senate for confirmation.[93] His first bill that he signed into law was a waiver of the National Security Act of 1947 granted to him that allowed the nomination of retired general James Mattis to be nominated for the position of United States secretary of defense.[94] The National Security Act of 1947 requires a seven-year waiting period before retired military personnel can assume the role of Secretary of Defense.[94] Mattis became only the second secretary of defense to receive such a waiver, following George Marshall, who served under President Harry S. Truman.[94] Following in tradition, Trump used various commemorative pens to sign the Cabinet nominations, and distributed them among the lawmakers and guests that had gathered. The pens are traditionally given as a gift to politicians or individuals touched by the action, or were instrumental in its implementation.[93]
Trump also signed a proclamation declaring his inauguration a National Day of Patriotic Devotion.[95][96][97] In this he followed Barack Obama, who declared his a National Day of Renewal and Reconciliation,[98] and previous declarations of periods of patriotism by such former presidents as Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan.[99]
Trump was accompanied at the signing ceremony by his wife, and children, and several of his grandchildren, as well as the chairs of the Joint Congressional Inauguration Committee, including senators Roy Blunt, Mitch McConnell and Chuck Schumer, and Congressional leaders Paul Ryan, Kevin McCarthy and Nancy Pelosi.[99] During the ceremony, the lawmakers joked with President Trump, he handed pens to participants (e.g. Elaine Chao's nomination pen to Nancy Pelosi, Trump stating, because "they were both women") and then traded pens in an offer to give, not as an ask to receive (Nancy Pelosi gave Elaine Chao's nomination pen to Chao's husband, Mitch McConnell).[99][100] The Trumps and Pences then attended an inaugural luncheon at the U.S. Capitol before traveling from there to the presidential reviewing stand at the White House to watch the parade.[101][102]
President Trump signing his first official orders as President, including nominating his Cabinet


The Trumps and Pences joined several congressional guests for the inaugural luncheon in National Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol. Guests included top Washington lawmakers as well as former presidents and vice presidents. During his formal address at the lunch, Trump asked those in attendance to give Hillary Clinton, one of his opponents during the 2016 election, a standing ovation.[103][104][105]
A luncheon at the U.S. Capitol has been part of the inaugural program since 1953 (before that time, the luncheon was usually held at the White House and hosted by the outgoing president and first lady). The menu for the 2017 inaugural luncheon, which in the past has often featured dishes representative of the home states of the new president and vice president, included more traditional dishes from around the country.[101] The first course consisted of Maine lobster and Gulf shrimp with saffron sauce and peanut crumble, accompanied by a J. Lohr 2013 Arroyo Vista Chardonnay.[101] The second dish contained Seven Hills Angus beef in dark chocolate and juniper jus with potato gratin, served with a Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon, and dessert included a chocolate soufflé and cherry vanilla ice cream with California Champagne.[101] Since 1985, a painting has served as a backdrop for the head table. For the 2017 inaugural luncheon, the featured painting was George Caleb Bingham's The Verdict of the People, which depicts a Missouri town and its citizens both celebrating and mourning the election victory of what historians say was a likely proslavery candidate.[106]


President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump walking the parade route on Pennsylvania Avenue
Following the luncheon, Trump, Pence, and their wives reviewed an honor guard of troops at the East Front of the U.S. Capitol before beginning the parade.[107][108] The inaugural parade route ran along Pennsylvania AvenueNW from the U.S. Capitol, ending at the north face of the White House.[109] During most of the parade, President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump traveled in the armored limousine used by the president because of potential security threats. The president and first lady exited their limousine twice, walking on Pennsylvania Avenue for portions of the parade,[102][110][111] a longstanding custom.[112] Vice President Pence and his wife Karen walked the parade route at several points with their children as well.[113]
The parade lasted approximately two hours during the afternoon and early evening following the inaugural ceremony.[114] Parade participants included more than 8,000 people,[115] "representing forty organizations including high school and university marching bands, equestrian corps, first responders, and veterans groups," according to the Joint Congressional Inauguration Committee.[116] Each branch of the United States military was also represented.[116]
Vice President Mike Pence invited several groups from Indiana to march in the parade in the Indiana section, including the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department Drill Team, the Culver Military Academy, and the Columbus North High School marching band from Pence's native Columbus, Indiana.[117] Shortly after the parade, Trump went to the Oval Office to sign his first executive orders as president, including an order to start the process of dismantling the Affordable Care Act.[118][119]

Inaugural balls[edit]

The President and First Lady at the Liberty Ball on the evening of the inauguration
President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump attended three official inaugural balls during the evening of January 20, 2017,[62][120] titled "Liberty and Freedom: The Official Presidential Inaugural Balls."[121] Donald Trump wore a classic black tuxedo, with a white button up shirt, and a black bow tie, in keeping with tradition.[122] Melania Trump wore a white, off-the-shoulder, sleeveless gown designed by French-American fashion designer Hervé Pierre.[123] Pierre has also designed dresses for first ladies Laura BushHillary Clinton and Michelle Obama, and he has been styling for Melania Trump for several years.[123] The dress featured a front slit, a ruffled accent and a thin red belt to cinch the waist.[122]
The Liberty Ball, one of two official balls held at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, was the first stop of the evening for the president and first lady. The Trumps danced to their first song, which was chosen to be "My Way" by Frank Sinatra, and was performed by Erin Boheme, an American jazz singer.[121][122] In an attempt to allow more access to the inaugural balls, the Presidential Inauguration Committee announced that they intended to make the inaugural balls the most affordable in recent history, offering $50 tickets to either the Liberty or Freedom Balls.[124] The second ball that the Trumps attended was the Freedom Ball, also held at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, and also featured a first dance to "My Way", as with the Liberty Ball.[122]
The President, First Lady, Vice President and Second Lady dancing with service members at the Armed Services Ball
The third ball that the president and first lady attended was the Salute To Our Armed Services Ball, which took place at the National Building Museum. The ball was by invitation only, with free tickets being provided to "active duty and reserve military, Medal of Honor recipients, wounded warriors, military families, veterans, and first responders," according to the Presidential Inauguration Committee.[124] At the beginning of the ball, Trump and his wife, Melania, addressed the crowd of gathered service members, and then spoke via satellite with active duty soldiers in Bagram AirfieldAfghanistan.[125] Trump thanked the active duty soldiers for the congratulations on his inauguration as Commander-in-chief.[125] Tony Orlando and the Josh Weathers Band performed at the Armed Services Ball.[125]
It is tradition for the president and first lady, and the vice president and second lady, to dance with military service members during the Armed Services Ball. A cover of the song "I Will Always Love You" by Whitney Houston was performed during the dance.[126] President Trump danced with U.S. Navy petty officer 2nd class Catherine Cartmell of Newport, Rhode Island.[126] Sgt. Angel Rodriguez, who danced with Second Lady Karen Pence, drew attention for his dancing style, spinning the Second Lady, which provoked playful laughter from Tiffany and Eric Trump.[127] After the dance concluded, President Trump and Vice President Pence used a saber to cut the ceremonial military cake in order to honor the sacrifice and service of the members of the Armed Forces.[126]

Prayer service[edit]

President and First Lady Trump arriving at Washington National Cathedral for the national prayer service
On January 21, President Trump, First Lady Melania Trump, Vice President Pence and Second Lady Karen Pence gathered at the Washington National Cathedral for a national day of prayer,[128] a tradition dating back to the first president, George Washington.[129] Among the parishioners were more than two dozen religious leaders from a variety of different faiths.[130] Marlana VanHoose, a 20-year-old vocalist who was born with cytomegalovirus, performed at the ceremony, singing "How Great Thou Art".[131] Melania Trump was visibly emotional during the performance, and led a standing ovation for her after she finished performing.[131] The service began with call to prayer by the Reverend Rosemarie Duncan, Mikhail Manevich, a Jewish cantor, and Mohamed Magid, a Muslim imam.[129] The clergy spoke of both compassion and diversity.[129]

Crowd size[edit]

Attendance at Presidential Inaugurations per Vox[3]
Clinton (1993)800,000
Clinton (1997)250,000
G. W. Bush (2001)300,000
G. W. Bush (2005)400,000
Obama (2009)1,800,000
Obama (2013)1,000,000
Trump (2017)600,000
Before the event, federal and local agencies had prepared for turnout of between 700,000 and 900,000 people.[132][133] Trump predicted that there would be "an unbelievable, perhaps record-setting turnout" at his inauguration.[134]
The National Park Service does not publish crowd estimates about events at the National Mall.[135] Overhead imagery[136] and statistics on public transportation ridership from the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which operates Metrorail, are therefore used to estimate crowd sizes.[137]
The WMATA reported that 193,000 passengers rode the Metro before 11 a.m. on the day of Trump's inauguration, and 570,557 passengers during the entire day, noting that it was lower than the average weekday ridership of 639,000 passengers.[138] USA Today reported on "a notable number" of empty seats along the parade route.[139]
Inauguration of Donald Trump
Crowd counting experts cited by The New York Times estimated that about 160,000 people were in the National Mall areas in the hour leading up to Trump's speech.[140] Crowd science professor Keith Still estimated the total attendance at 300,000 to 600,000 people, or one-third the estimated 1.1 million to 1.8 million people that attended Obama's 2009 inauguration[3][141][142] – which set a record for the total number of people in the National Mall at any one given time,[143] and which marked the inauguration of the nation's first African American president.[144][145] CNN provided a gigapixel panorama of the area.[146]
Nielsen ratings showed that TV viewership of the inauguration in the US was 30.6 million, more than Obama's second inauguration in 2013 (20.6 million),[147] but less than Obama's first inauguration in 2009 (38 million) and Reagan's first in 1981 (42 million).[148] Trump's inauguration became the most streamed Twitter video during the site's decade long history with more than 6.8 million views.[149][150]

Administration response[edit]

File:Sean Spicer White House statement crowd size 2017-01-21.webm
White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer giving Trump administration's statement on crowd size in his January 21 press conference (extract)
In a press conference on January 21, Sean Spicer, Trump's White House press secretary, stated that the crowd "was the largest audience ever to witness an inauguration, period, both in person and around the globe", and accused the media of reporting false crowd estimates to "lessen the enthusiasm of the inauguration".[151][152][153] Spicer also stated that 420,000 people rode the Metro on the day of Trump's inauguration, and that only 317,000 rode on the day of Obama's.[151][153] In fact, 570,557 Metro trips were taken on the day of Trump's inauguration, compared to 1.1 million on Obama's 2009 inauguration day and 782,000 on Obama's 2013 inauguration day.[154] Ridership at 11 a.m. was 193,000, 513,000 and 317,000 respectively.[154]
Numerous sources highlighted the fact that Spicer's statements were incorrect, and many accused him of intentionally misstating the figures.[151][155][156] In response, Donald Trump's counselor and spokesperson, Kellyanne Conway, in an interview with NBC's Chuck Todd, stated that Spicer merely presented "alternative facts".[157] Todd responded by saying "alternative facts are not facts. They're falsehoods."[158]
On January 23, Spicer admitted his error concerning WMATA ridership levels, stating that he was relying on statistics given to him, but he stood by his claim that the inauguration was the most-viewed, stating he also included online viewership in addition to in-person and television in his estimates.[159][160] Spicer's claim of the largest audience ever was still shown inaccurate as Nielsen reported 30.6 million viewers across 12 networks while Obama had 37.8 million and Ronald Reagan 41.8 million.[161] As for online viewership, Spicer himself cited a figure of 16.9 million livestreams provided by CNN. However, CNN served nearly 27 million streams in 2009 for Obama's inauguration.[161][failed verification] CNN reported in 2009 that 7.7 million people watched the inauguration online, while nearly 27 million watched streaming video of any sort on CNN's website on that day.[162] NBC's livestream on YouTube of Trump's inauguration in 2017 accumulated over 8 million views within a day.[163][164]
The incoming administration briefly shut down the Interior Department's Twitter accounts.[165] The National Park Service's official Twitter account had re-tweeted two Tweets on "omissions on policy areas" on the White House website and Trump's and Obama's crowd sizes.[165] An NPS spokesman issued an apology for "mistaken RTs".[165]
On the morning following the inauguration, Trump telephoned acting National Park Service director Michael T. Reynolds and personally directed him to produce additional aerial photographs of the Inauguration Day crowds.[166][167] Reynolds and the Park Service complied with the directive; the additional photos, however, "did not prove Trump's contention that the crowd size was upward of 1 million."[166] In September 2018, documents released from a Freedom of Information Act request showed that Reynolds and the National Park Service cropped photos of the inauguration, at the direction of the President, in an attempt to make the crowd size seem larger.[168]

Edited photos[edit]

In September 2018, a government photographer admitted that he, at Trump's request,[169] edited pictures of the inauguration to make the crowd appear larger: "The photographer cropped out empty space 'where the crowd ended' for a new set of pictures requested by Trump on the first morning of his presidency, after he was angered by images showing his audience was smaller than Barack Obama's in 2009."[168][170]

Protests and demonstrations[edit]

File:Protesters Take to Parade Route.webm
Protesters in Washington D.C. at Trump's inauguration
As of mid-December, there were 20 requests for demonstration permits for Trump's inauguration, including Bikers for Trump, and the Women's March on Washington, which took place the day after inauguration day.[171] Supported by nearly 200 activist groups and organizations, and drawing an estimated three times as many participants as the inauguration,[140] the Women's March demonstrated on racial and gender equality, affordable healthcare, abortion rights and voting rights.[172]
Protests occurred during the inauguration ceremonies in Washington, D.C. The vast majority of protesters, several thousand in all, were peaceful.[173][174][175] DisruptJ20 protesters linked arms at security checkpoints and attempted to shut them down.[176] Some elements of the protesters were black bloc groups and self described anarchists, and engaged in sporadic acts of vandalism, rioting, and violence.[175][177][178] Six police officers sustained minor injuries, and at least one other person was injured.[174][175][179]
A total of 234 people were arrested and charged with rioting, launching controversial trials that gave rise to allegations that the government was overreaching.[180] Ultimately, 21 defendants pleaded guilty, and all other defendants were either acquitted or had charges dropped by prosecutors; the government failed to obtain a guilty verdict at any trial.[180] In December 2017, the first six people to be tried in connection with the events of January 20 were acquitted by a jury of all charges.[181] Twenty other defendants pleaded guilty and prosecutors dropped cases against 20 others.[181] In January 2018, prosecutors dropped charges against 129 other defendants.[182] In May 2018, prosecutors dropped charges against seven more defendants, after the court found that prosecution had intentionally made misrepresentations to the court and hidden exculpatory evidence from defendants in violation of the Brady rule,[183] and prosecutors also reduced charges against others.[184] Finally, in July 2018, the government dropped charges against all remaining defendants.[180]
Sixty-seven Democratic U.S. representatives declined to attend Trump's inauguration, citing "what they described as his alarming and divisive policies, foreign interference in his election and his criticism of civil rights icon John Lewis, a congressman from Georgia".[185]


There were 16.63 million viewers of Trump taking the oath of office and giving his inaugural address on the three major cable news networks Fox, CNN, and MSNBC. The number of viewers for Obama in 2009 was more at 17.06 million and in 2013 less at 6.73 million. According to Nielsen data, there were 30.64 million people who viewed Trump's inauguration on the 12 networks that covered it live. The number of viewers for Obama's 2009 inauguration on the 18 networks that covered it live was more at 37.8 million. At Obama's 2013 inauguration, it was less at 20.55 million.[186]


There are multiple investigations into Trump's inauguration; including by the Southern District of New York (SDNY), the Eastern District of New York, the Justice Department’s public integrity section, the New Jersey attorney general, the Attorney General for the District of Columbia, and the House Judiciary Committee; as of May 2019.[187]

Investigation by the special counsel[edit]

News reports surfaced in April 2018 that the Special Counsel investigation is looking into the inaugural committee's finances. Prosecutors have questioned several Russian oligarchs, upon their arrival at a U.S. airport, about whether any Russian money was illegally funneled into the inauguration committee or the Trump campaign itself.[188] Robert Mueller's team has questioned Barrack and other witnesses, reportedly asking about "donors with connections to Russia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar."[189] Counterintelligence agents with the FBI began investigating this possibility immediately after the inauguration itself, their interest sparked by the large number of wealthy Russians who attended the inauguration and the special events that attended it.[190]
Samuel Patten plea agreement
In August 2018, American political consultant W. Samuel Patten, an associate of Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort, pleaded guilty in federal court to failure to register as a foreign agent in connection with the illegal funneling of foreign funds to the presidential inauguration committee. Patten admitted to arranging a "straw donation" in which $50,000 was funneled from a Ukrainian businessman to a U.S. citizen to donate to the committee in exchange for four tickets to the inauguration. Patten also admitted to giving misleading testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee about the matter.[191] In exchange for a recommendation of a lenient sentence, Patten pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with Special Counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller.[191]
In court documents, prosecutors wrote that Patten formed a lobbying and consulting firm with a Russian national identified as "Foreigner A"; the firm was paid for work advising the Ukrainian Opposition Bloc party and some Bloc members, including "a prominent Ukraine businessman identified only as 'Foreigner B.'"[191] The Washington Post and The New York Times identified Konstantin Kilimnik (a Manafort associate whom prosecutors allege is a Russian intelligence operative) as "Foreigner A" and Serhiy Lovochkin (a former aide to Viktor Yanukovych, the pro-Russian former president of Ukraine) as "Foreigner B."[191][192] Kilimnik attended Trump's inauguration.[193]

Investigation by U.S. attorney's office in New York[edit]

The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times reported in December 2018 that federal prosecutors in Manhattan and Brooklyn are investigating whether Middle Eastern foreigners sought to buy influence over American policies by using straw donors to illegally funnel donations to Trump's inaugural committee and a pro-Trump Super PAC.[194][195]
The Trump inaugural committee received a subpoena from federal prosecutors on February 4, 2019. The SDNY subpoena demanded a comprehensive array of documents involving the committee's donors, finances, attendees and activities. The subpoena named one person of interest: fundraiser Imaad Zuberi.[196] The subpoena reportedly covered allegations of conspiracy to defraud the United States governmentmoney launderingfalse statementsmail and wire fraud, disclosure violations and prohibitions against contributions by foreign nations.[197][198]

Investigations by attorneys general[edit]

The attorneys general of New Jersey and the District of Columbia issued subpoenas for documents to the inaugural committee in February 2019.[199][200]

External links[edit]





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